How to take vitamins correctly

take vitamins correctlyTaking vitamins that strengthen immunity is especially popular in the midst of an epidemic. The head of the project

How to take vitamins correctly and whether it is possible to replace natural vitamins with synthetic ones. Details are in the RIA Tomsk review.

Earlier it was reported that the Siberian State Medical University (SSMU) in 2017 launched a large-scale program “Tomsk Region – Health Laboratory”, which includes several areas: an information site, RIA Tomsk is the information partner of the project.

Vitamin overdose

“Lack of vitamins, as well as excess, can lead to various disorders in the body and serious diseases,” says the head of the Center for Clinical Research, Head of the Department of Pediatric Diseases, Professor of the Department of Faculty Therapy with a course of clinical pharmacology at the Siberian State Medical University of the Ministry of Health, a chief freelance specialist on medical prevention of the Department of Health Yulia Samoilova.

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The expert explains that vitamins are essential as part of the food and are divided into two groups – fat-soluble and water-soluble. The first includes vitamins A, D, E, K, the second – B1, B2, PP, B5, B6, H, B9, B12, C, R.

The lack of vitamins is characterized by the following symptoms: increased fatigue or excitability, irritability, decreased appetite of varying severity (up to anorexia), sleep disturbance, pathological changes in the state of the skin and mucous membranes.

They are also violations of the normal functioning of the organs of the gastrointestinal (gastrointestinal) tract and changes in the blood count.

“Hypervitaminosis is less common than deficiency. Water-soluble vitamins in case of their excess are usually successfully excreted in the urine. However, prolonged consumption of fat-soluble vitamins in quantities exceeding the daily requirement can lead to the development of intoxication (hypervitaminosis),” the doctor warns.

Thus, an overdose of fat-soluble vitamins D, A, and K poses a real danger to health. Particular attention should be paid to the use of high doses of vitamin D, which has recently become very serious since many people independently prescribe drugs with vitamin D.

Although we should know, some patient groups may be more sensitive to vitamin D supplementation. These are primarily patients with granulomatous diseases (including sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, chronic fungal infections, lymphomas, etc.). In such patients, correction of 25 (OH ) D should be done with caution in view of the enhanced PTH-independent activation of vitamin D and the potentially increased risk of hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria, ”Samoilova said.

According to her, for such patients, the correction of vitamin D deficiency should be carried out with caution, under the control of indicators of calcium-phosphorus metabolism in the blood.

Vitamin compatibility

“At the moment in the scientific community there is no unequivocal opinion about the compatibility of various vitamins,” says Samoilova.

Modern research shows that the use of vitamin and mineral complexes is not always effective due to the interaction between micronutrients. For example, phosphorus can reduce the efficiency of magnesium absorption, and vitamin B12 can lose up to 30% of its activity in the presence of iron.

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On the other hand, there is no proven scientific evidence of antagonistic interactions between individual vitamins and minerals.

Synthetic vitamins

According to her, some experts argue that synthetic vitamins are not absorbed by the body at all, and their intake leads to additional diseases. Others write that synthetic vitamins are similar to natural ones both in chemical structure and in biological activity.

However, it is known that some natural and synthetic vitamins are not identical in composition. For example, ascorbic acid is just an isolate, a fragment of natural vitamin C. In addition to ascorbic acid, natural vitamin C includes other substances – rutin, bioflavonoids, tyrosinase, and so on.

However, the use of vitamins in tablets is permissible and leads to a positive result in vitamin deficiency.

Vitamin D

From 50% to 75% of the world’s population suffers from its lack to varying degrees. The risk group for developing vitamin D deficiency are infants, the elderly, dark-skinned people, people with limited exposure to the sun (less than two hours a day), obesity, the population of countries located north of the 35th parallel in the northern hemisphere (almost the entire territory) …

Vitamin D promotes intestinal absorption of calcium and maintains the necessary blood calcium and phosphate levels to promote bone mineralization and prevent hypocalcemic tetany.

It is also required for bone growth and the bone remodeling process, which is the function of bone cells. Adequate vitamin D levels prevent rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Together with calcium, vitamin D is used for the prevention and as part of the complex treatment of osteoporosis.

According to a number of researchers, the functions of vitamin D are not limited only to control of calcium-phosphorus metabolism, it also affects other physiological processes in the body, including the modulation of cell growth, neuromuscular conduction, immunity, and inflammation.

Vitamin D deficiency is recommended to be determined in the laboratory as a concentration of 25 (OH) D <20 ng / ml (50 nmol / l), deficiency – a concentration of 25 (OH) D from 20 to 30 ng / ml (from 50 to 75 nmol / l), adequate levels as 30-100 ng / ml (75-250 nmol / L).

The physiological need for vitamin D for children and adults in Russia is 10 micrograms per day (μg / day), for people over 60 years old – 15 μg / day. Natural sources of vitamin D: fish oil, fatty fish (salmon, tuna, mackerel), beef liver, cheese, egg yolk, butter.

Vitamin is called “solar”: our body is able to produce it itself – with the help of melanocytes, special skin cells. For the vitamin to be produced, we need to stay in the sun for about 20 minutes a day, but unfortunately, this is not always possible. Locomotor activity is no less important since the vitamin synthesized in the skin enters the bloodstream better and is carried throughout the body.

For the prevention of vitamin D deficiency, persons aged 18-50 years are recommended to receive at least 600-800 IU of vitamin D per day. Those over 50 years old – at least 800-1000 IU of vitamin D per day.

For prevention, pregnant and lactating women are recommended to receive at least 800-1200 IU of vitamin D per day.

For children under the age of 4 months, a daily intake of 500 IU / day is recommended (for premature babies – 800-1000 IU / day), from 4 months to 4 years – 1000 IU / day, 4-10 years old – 1500 IU / day, 10- 16 years – 2000 IU / day of vitamin for a year.

Vitamin A (retinol)

Vitamin A It plays an important role in the processes of growth and reproduction, differentiation of epithelial and bone tissues, maintenance of immunity, and vision.

Physiological need for adults – 900 mcg/day, for children – from 400. Plants do not contain retinol, in its pure form it comes only with animal products: butter, cream, chicken egg yolks, kidneys, fermented milk products, fish liver.

vitamins B

A group of water-soluble vitamins that work an important role in cellular metabolism. Some substances used to belong to B vitamins, but later it was shown that they are only vitamin-like substances or are synthesized in the human body.

Vitamin B2 is involved in redox reactions, helps to increase the color sensitivity of the visual analyzer and dark adaptation. The physiological level of need is 1.1-2.8 mg/day.

The physiological role of vitamin B6 is to participate in the exchange of tryptophan (converting it into nicotinic acid), methionine, cysteine, glutamic and other amino acids, and histamine.

It is necessary for the regulation of fat metabolism, participates in maintaining the immune response, inhibition, and excitation processes in the central nervous system contribute to the normal formation of red blood cells, and maintenance of normal blood homocysteine ​​levels.

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The physiological need for adults is 2.0 mg / day, for children – from 0.4 to 2.0 mg / day. Partially vitamin B6 is synthesized by the intestinal microflora. Yeast contains a large amount of this vitamin.

Zinc

Currently, due to the pandemic situation, a large number of publications have appeared on the role of zinc in the prevention of COVID. This has indeed appeared scientifically proven data. Adequate zinc levels in the body can reduce the likelihood of respiratory infections, pneumonia, and complications, the scientists said.

Zinc plays an important role in the regulation of immunity and maintains resistance to inflammation, therefore its effects on the body are considered in many studies from the point of view of prevention of COVID-19.

Zinc is present in over 300 enzymes. It participates in the processes of synthesis and breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, nucleic acids, and in the regulation of the expression of a number of genes.

The physiological need for zinc for adults is 12 mg/day, for children – from 3 to 12 mg/day.

I would like to draw the attention of readers: the use of one microelement, unfortunately, will not prevent the development of the disease even in high dosages, so we should not forget about other preventive measures.

Folic acid

The biological role of folic acid is associated with its participation in the exchange of nucleic acids and protein, especially hematopoietic cells. It directly regulates the synthesis of methionine,

purine compounds (and indirectly – pyrimidine compounds), the transformation of a number of amino acids. The physiological requirement for adults is 400 mcg/day, for children – from 50 to 400 mcg/day.

Phosphorus

Phosphorus takes part in many physiological processes, including energy metabolism, regulation of acid-base balance. It is a part of phospholipids, nucleotides, and nucleic acids participate in cellular regulation, is necessary for the mineralization of bones and teeth.

The deficiency of phosphorus in the body leads to anorexia, anemia, rickets. The physiological need for adults is 800 mg/day, for children – from 300 to 1200 mg/day.

Calcium

CalciumIt is a necessary element of the mineral matrix (the intercellular substance of bone tissue) of the bone, which acts as a regulator of the nervous system, and participates in muscle contraction.

Calcium deficiency leads to demineralization of the spine, pelvic bones, and lower extremities increase the risk of osteoporosis.

The physiological need for adults is 1000 mg / day, for people over 60 years old – 1200 mg / day, for children – from 400 to 1200 mg / day.

The deficiency of phosphorus in the body leads to anorexia, anemia, rickets. The physiological need for adults is 800 mg/day, for children – from 300 to 1200 mg/day.

Potassium and sodium

The physiological requirement for adults is 2500 mg/day, for children – from 400 to 2500 mg/day.

Sodium is the main extracellular ion that takes part in the transfer of water, blood glucose, generation and transmission of electrical nerve signals, and muscle contraction. The physiological need for adults is 1300 mg/day, for children – from 200 to 1300 mg/day.

Iron

The body of an adult contains 3-4 grams of iron, while its daily intake in the diet is 0.018 grams for women and 0.008 grams for men. But there is one important detail – only 10% of consumed iron is absorbed by the body, you need to increase the daily rate by 10. Lack of iron can cause not only chronic fatigue, dry skin, and decreased performance, but also the development of such a dangerous disease as anemia.

Foods with the most iron are beef, as well as beef liver, kidney, and heart. 100 grams of the product accounts for 36% of the daily value of the mineral. At the same time, beef contains heme iron, which is absorbed five times better than non-heme iron.

The physiological requirement for adults is 10 mg/day for men and 18 mg/day for women, for children – from 4 to 18 mg/day.

Selenium and chromium

Selenium is an element of the antioxidant defense system of the human body, has an immunomodulatory effect and is involved in the regulation of the action of thyroid hormones. Deficiency starts to Kashin-Beck disease (osteoarthritis with multiple deformities of the joints, spine, and limbs), Keshan’s disease (endemic myocardiopathy), hereditary thrombasthenia.

The physiological requirement for adults is 55 mcg/day for women, 70 mcg/day for men, for children – from 10 to 50 mcg/day.

 Deficiency leads to decreased glucose tolerance. The physiological requirement for adults is 50 mcg/day, for children – from 11 to 35 mcg/day.

Iodine

The main biological role of iodine in the human body is its participation in the synthesis of thyroid hormones of the thyroid gland, which determines mental development. It is especially important for the intrauterine development of a child and young children.

The daily physiological need for iodine is: for children – 90 μg / day, adolescents – 120 μg / day, adults – 150 μg / day, the elderly – 100 μg / day. For pregnant and lactating women, the daily iodine intake should be at least 200 mcg/day. The real consumption of iodine in Russia does not exceed 40-80 mcg/day.

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